Of stone were formerly made jugs and pitchers for water; and nowadays these, and a thousand other vessels for containing food and drink, are made of clay hardened to stone by fire. The first definite reference to it is found in the Latin poetry of Manilius about 12 AD, and Elder Pliny describes diamond crystals from India about 77 AD. Both of these stones were well known in Bible times, the aquamarine being the most common, while the Emerald was more rare. It is a combination of sard (carnelian) and onux (onyx). The various types differ in color due to metallic impurities, such as iron, nickel, copper, and titanium present during crystallization. Agate was believed to void the toxicity of all poisons and counteract the infection of contagious diseases; if held in the hand or in the mouth it was believed to alleviate fever. The first mention of stones in the Bible (Exodus 28:17-20) has to do with the stones in Aaron's breastplate. Legend states it was used to drive away evil spirits and protect against snake and spider bites. Then go deeper by reading All About Agates and following the links on that page to specific types of agates. Amethyst, Ex 28:19, 39:12, Rev 21:20 Amethyst is the third stone in the third row of the breastplate and the twelfth and last stone listed in the foundation of the New Jerusalem. Jasper, Ex 28:20, 39:13, Job 28:18, Ezek 28:13, Rev 4:3, 21:11,18,19 Jasper is named as the twelfth stone in the breastplate. Diamond, Ex 28:18, 39:11, Jer 17:1, Ezek 28:13 Diamond is listed as the third stone in the third row. Carnelian is a translucent, orangish red variety of chalcedony that has often been used for ring stones and wax seals. It was used in ancient times as mantles, pillars, vases, and other interior decorations. There are more legends associated with turquoise than with any other gemstone. Introduction While I was a student in seminary, I went through one of those typical stages through which the immature pass. Who or what does it refer too? It was also used extensively for inlaying. (John 3:6) Whosoever shall do the will of God, the same is my brother and sister and mother. (Matthew 7:17)Among such jewels, those that reveal the love of the Lord for man, and the reciprocal love of men for the Lord, if presented to our spiritual sight as gems, would shine with warm light as the ruby, the carbuncle, and the sardius. When it is really fixed, it is solid, inflexible, and to be depended upon, like the stones. If there be an abundance of fact, or of certain truth, more or less common, which reaches our neighbor’s state as well as our own, and which we both are familiar with, or take for granted because of its general use, it is easy to pass from one state to the other, and to interchange the good things of both. A string of expertly carved carnelian beads was found in Egypt dating back to 3100 BC. As more information surfaces thanks to archaeological findings and the writings of ancient historians such as Theophrastus (372-287 BC), Elder Pliny (23-79 AD), and Josephus (37-100 AD), we are able to make more positive identifications. These seal rings when pressed into the seal material (clay or wax) leave a raised design. Jasper (iaspis) is mentioned in several places in the Bible and it is also listed as the sixth foundation stone of the New Jerusalem in the Greek and Latin texts. Emerald is a green variety of beryl. We readily separate from this general truth the particulars that the earth attracts this falling stone or these fluttering leaves; for this mental stone has been so long exposed to the wear of human thought that its surface is easily pulverized. Sardonyx has a structure similar to onyx, but is composed usually of alternate layers of white chalcedony and carnelian, although it may have layers of white, brown, and black chalcedony too. The Elder Pliny (AD 23-69) gives a description of sappir (translated by most as sapphire) as being "refulgent with spots like gold. Chrysoprase, Rev 21:20 Chrysoprase is listed as the tenth stone in the foundation of the New Jerusalem. The rocks have many points of resemblance to water; so many that water is ranked among them as a mineral. Chrysolite (Topaz), Ex 28:19, 39:12, Ezek 28:13, Job 28:19, Rev 21:20 Chrysolite is the seventh foundation stone of the New Jerusalem foundation. Chalcedony, Rev 21:19 Chalcedony is listed as the third foundation stone of the New Jerusalem. It is a calcareous secretion of certain polyps resulting in a tree-like formation. ROCKS OF THE BIBLE. Most scholars agree that lapis lazuli is actually the stone referred to as “sapphire” in the Bible. The correlative truth is that even the truths of nature took form by degrees, as nature itself came into form, and the order of its operations became established. The named jasperis is derived from the Greek word that means “spotted stone”. Bible never claims the age of the earth. Agates were highly prized among ancient civilizations. Some variations of those names still exist today, but many stones have been reclassified by science. If the truths we depend upon are new to us, and it is necessary to observe and recognize them separately, the way is tedious, and progress in coming together is slow, as by a freshly dressed road. Carbuncle is used in some translations as the third stone in the first row and emerald is listed as the first stone in the second row (instead of turquoise). Carnelian has been frequently discovered in excavations of the ancient tombs of royalty. It was used for jewelry, ornamentation, seals, and amulets. But rocks are utterly unlike water in their hardness, inflexibility, and solidity. It was also believed to make one invulnerable and it was placed on body armor, turbans, swords and knives. The modern word comes from the Greek chrusoprasos and literally translated is chrusos meaning “golden” and prason meaning “a leek” indicating the color of the stone. Processes of the Rock Cycle. Amethyst is one of the few stones in which experts agree as to the correctness of its identification. Why a “Rock?” The term or phrase “the rock’ is more than just a word that describes an earthly element. "Rocks" - discussed most often in the books of Isaiah (5), Jeremiah (3) and Samuel-1 (2). Spiritual distance is difference of state. Give ye greatness to our God, the Rock whose work is perfect. (John 3:16)Every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit. 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