manufacturing quality metrics examples

Here are some finance-related quality metrics to use. multi-plant, 10. Only 14% of smart factories say they are succeeding, however. Customer Complaints and Returns. Modern manufacturing includes robust quality metrics programs as a foundation for continual improvement of product and process quality. Cost of Quality. Top 5 Quality Metrics For The Plant Manager’s Dashboard. In this blog, we will be discussing metrics that are a must for the dashboard of any plant manager. The urgent need to know how the many decisions on the shop floor impact financial results are forcing manufacturers to replace legacy systems with integrated platforms. In our last blog, we talked about metrics that can help corporate executives better understand the effectiveness of quality management strategy in their organization. Quality metrics are used to directly translate customer needs into acceptable performance measures in both products and processes. Product returns parts per million. Manufacturing Cycle Time, Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE), Perfect Order Performance, Supplier Quality and Yield Rates are the five metrics that the majority of manufacturers are using to break out of being in reactive and become more responsive to customers’ current and future preferences and requirements. Innovation and Flexibility. KPIs are organized by shift and dashboard users can drill down to visualize these metrics by product at specific times. 1. You can reach me on Twitter at @LouisColumbus. If the refrigerator is one unit, then the microwave is 1/3 of a unit. In today’s post, we share 5 Golden Manufacturing Metrics that all manufacturing companies should understand to improve plant operations quality. Within this approach, you can not be unsystematic about it. 3. In the best-run manufacturing plants, every member of the production team knows how their activity, behaviors, and decisions contribute to the overall teams’ goals getting accomplished. By PlanetTogether. Sometimes, quality specialists have to justify their budgets and strategies in board meetings. Capgemini found that discrete manufacturing leads all other segments in its planned transition to smart factories by 2024. Analytics is the cornerstone that keeps smart factories focused on customers and their changing needs. Number of audit action items. The following are the 10 most valuable metrics to manufacturers as they plan, pilot, and launch smart factories: The true power of metrics in smart factories is providing everyone with visibility into how their contributions to planning, producing, selling, and servicing products matter. They can help you adapt, thrive, and thrill customers with reliably high quality. Measuring your quality metrics can allow your production facility to collect and analyze relevant data within production and develop a much more concise picture of how well your overall supply chain is operating. Number of key customers. Advanced planning and scheduling software can offer thorough insight into your production facility quality metrics and enable you to locate areas that are in need of improvement. Zhu, K., Joshi, S., Wang, Q. G., & Hsi, J. F. Y. Plant Uptime = plant run time (production) / Total available time to run or produce. In order to optimize manufacturing operations, or really just about anything, you need to have at your fingertips the best and most accurate manufacturing metrics around. The metrics you measure are more than just report cards and to-do lists. Process Improvement Metrics Examples. The best-run manufacturing plants use analytics and the metrics that comprise them to achieve the following: Deciding Which Metrics Matter The Most In Smart Factories. To normalize this metric across different products within a plant or company, the numerator Units Produced may be calculated on an Equivalent Units basis (see below). Number of product returns 6. Defects. Our job as leaders is to help our people find it, involve our people and plan the attack on the highest impact issues first, and provide training on the tools necessary to succeed. In order to optimize manufacturing operations, or really just about anything, you need to have at your fingertips the best and most accurate manufacturing metrics around. Plant Uptime = plant run time (production) / Total available time to run or produce. Limited-Time Special: Download All Products Today 60% Off >> Rated #1 Excel Dashboards, Scorecards and KPIs Reports. The yield KPI is a measure of quality and performance and is at the heart of production efficiency and profitability. A manufacturing KPI or metric is a well-defined measurement to monitor, analyze and optimize production processes regarding their quantity, quality as well as different cost aspects. They give manufacturers valuable business insights to meet their organizational goals. Implementation of Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS) software will take your manufacturing operations to the next level of production efficiency, taking advantage of the operational data you already have in your ERP. These types of KPIs are created in addition to other factors such as dependability, responsiveness, versatility, and of course costs. 3. installation time 4. Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS) software has become a must for modern-day manufacturing operations due to customer demand for increased product mix and fast delivery combined with downward cost pressures. Process Improvement Metrics are the standard measurement processes to evaluate business operations. KPIs and productivity metrics can often act as intertwining categories. 3. Plant run time = Total available time to run – scheduled and unscheduled downtime/stoppages. Corrective Action/Preventative Action (CAPA) events. A manufacturing KPI or metric is a well-defined measurement to monitor, analyze and optimize production processes regarding their quantity, quality as well as different cost aspects. By Here are some of the most effective manufacturing KPIs and metrics: 21 Production KPI Examples for the Manufacturing Industry Capacity Utilization – This measures how much of your available capacity you are actually using on your production line. For example, a hotel might randomly sample rooms that have been cleaned to make sure that the room is in the expected condition. 6. Measuring your quality metrics can allow your production facility to collect and analyze relevant data within production and develop a much more concise picture of how well your overall supply chain is operating. The quality of processes or project work can be measured with a defect rate. The insight you need to break through quality barriers and transform your manufacturing organization is within reach. For example, the idea behind quality metrics for the pharmaceutical industry looks similar to the approach used in the steel industry, software engineering or … Quality Improvements. Salehi, M. (2019). Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own. Sales goals and profit margins are all performance metrics examples and/or productivity metrics that businesses reference, but it … Many production facilities measure first pass and overall yield, all the while both metrics may provide insights into … manufacturing process, Examples of Manufacturing Quality Metrics for Plant Managers, Therefore, here are five examples of important manufacturing metrics to measure within production. Here are the 12 most important metrics to measure in manufacturing that are essential for a successful business… Manufacturing cycle time. One product is picked as the baseline, and the other is expressed in equivalent units. The standard labor content is three hours for a refrigerator, and 1 hour for a microwave. Of the dozen smart factories I’ve visited, all share the common attribute of being able to aggregate and provide insights in real-time of how each phase of the manufacturing process reduces costs or improves customer experiences. They give manufacturers valuable business insights to meet their organizational goals. … Manufacturers are also planning to launch 40% more smart factories in the next five years, increasing their annual investments by 1.7 times compared to the previous three years. In manufacturing, it measures the time taken for a product to pass through all machines, processes and cycles to become a finished product. Plant downtime = 1 – (Plant run time/Total available time to run or produce) 8. Efficiency. Safety. The true cost of quality includes both the ... 2. I've taught at California State University, Fullerton: University of California, Irvine; Marymount University, and Webster University. 5 Key Metrics That Drive Higher Manufacturing Quality. Based on discussions with a dozen manufacturers over the last year, the following are the most valuable types of metrics for managing manufacturing operations today: Operations teams are also designing their smart factory IT and Operations Technology (OT) systems to capture real-time data when possible on the following types of metrics: Smart factories’ analytics’ strategies are designed to optimize the trade-offs of cost, production flexibility (as measured by scaling for higher and lower production volumes), product & service quality, and time. Previous positions include product management at Ingram Cloud, product marketing at iBASEt, Plex Systems, senior analyst at AMR Research (now Gartner), marketing and business development at Cincom Systems, Ingram Micro, a SaaS start-up and at hardware companies. Use this metric to understand the impact of poor quality. Cost of quality is one of the most important, yet often overlooked, metrics to monitor. Percent yield for a product 2. Improving Smart Manufacturing Outcomes Starts By Changing Behaviors. Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS) helps planners save time while providing greater agility in updating ever-changing priorities, production schedules, and inventory plans. Performance metrics are indicators of the value produced by a business, program, team or individual. Manufacturing Cycle Time, Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE), Perfect Order Performance, Supplier Quality and Yield Rates are the five metrics that the majority of manufacturers are using to break out of being in reactive and become more responsive to customers’ current and future preferences and requirements. Quality Control Quality control is the sampling or testing of manufactured units or delivered services. 1. The FREEDOM™ smart manufacturing production management software is a suite of data reporting platforms that provide real-time metrics from any industrial asset on the plant floor. It’s in your quality metrics. Smart manufacturing: characteristics, technologies, and enabling factors. 4. Therefore, here are five examples of important manufacturing metrics to measure within production. The following are common examples. Number of open corrective actions 9. Still, we can observe that the approach to maintaining high quality is very similar across different industries. Sales Volume 11. Software product marketing and product management leader with experience in marketing management, channel and direct sales with an emphasis in Cloud, catalog and content. Project managers must be able to assess the progress, efficiency, and performance of their projects and metrics are the means which allow project managers to do this. The yield KPI is a measure of quality and performance and is at the heart of production efficiency and profitability. I am also a member of the Enterprise Irregulars. It measures the average number of units being produced on a machine, line, unit or plant over a specified period of time. Number of supplier rejects 7. Create the mindset of CI/lean, i.e., there is always a better way. Engineering Change Order (ECO) Tracking. Bottom Line: Analytics expertise is a crucial driver enabling smart factories’ growth, with ten key metrics essential for keeping the next generation of smart manufacturing centers on track. Examples include manufacturing expenses for the creation of a physical product, such as a toy, and sales commissions. Examples of Quality Objectives: 1. In a nutshell, metrics are used to guide project managers make the right decision about the project that they are handling or the organization as a whole. What is Manufacturing Dashboard? Providing 24/7 access to utilization, availability, performance, quality , and OEE reports. Their greatest potential, however, is in providing production teams with a sense of purpose and meaning to continually keep striving to improve manufacturing process performance, product quality, and customer satisfaction. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 233(5), 1342-1361. Scheduling in cloud manufacturing: state-of-the-art and research challenges. Order Cycle Time, Gross Contribution Margin Analysis by Product and Segment, and Fill Rate Effectiveness as a Percent of All Orders are examples of … In my last article, and the first in our series on metrics, I made three key points:. APS can be quickly integrated with a ERP/MRP software to fill gaps where these system lack planning and scheduling flexibility and accuracy. Manufacturing KPIs scorecard offers a group of defined metrics that gives the management tools essential to evaluate the manufacturing process towards company targets. All Rights Reserved. 4. These processes are optimized in a cycle of measurement, improvement and again measurement. Supplier’s Quality Incoming – A measure of the percentage of good quality materials coming into the manufacturing process from a given supplier. The top three types of quality metrics for manufacturing include the following: Yield - Yield is a metric measured throughout most production facilities. I teach MBA courses in international business, global competitive strategies, international market research, and capstone courses in strategic planning and market research. Measuring supplier quality is crucial in determining a product’s final quality. Operations managers favor this metric due to the indication of how much total manufacturing output capacity is being utilized at a given point in time. 2. Cycle time for a product. Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) 4. In this blog, we will be discussing metrics that are a must for the dashboard of any plant manager. Line and bar charts display plant waste, process waste, tube waste, sample waste, pounds change, off shade, and on target metrics for each shift. Qu, Y. J., Ming, X. G., Liu, Z. W., Zhang, X. Y., & Hou, Z. T. (2019). Lean manufacturing focuses on eliminating sources of waste and continuously looking for ways to improve the organization. Advanced Planning and Scheduling, What are the top manufacturing metrics? KIT Scientific Publishing. 1. CpK for a given process characteristic 4. This can then be tracked as a quality metric such as the percentage of rooms that met the hotel's standards. For example, the number of defects per 1000 lines of code can be considered a quality metric. Guest Editorial Special Section on Big Data Analytics in Intelligent Manufacturing. Cycle time is the total time from the beginning to end of a process. Topics: Here are the 12 most important metrics to measure in manufacturing that are essential for a successful business… Manufacturing cycle time. International Journal of Production Research, 57(15-16), 4854-4879. Labor as a percentage of cost is a straightforward metric. Corrective action cycle time 8. Also known as Corrective Action Requests (CAR) addressing this metric and the events they ... 2. The bottom line is the future of smart manufacturing is being built on a foundation of analytics today, and ten key metrics emerge as essential for their success. What are the top manufacturing metrics? Cycle time is the total time from the beginning to end of a process. For example, you might measure units per minute. increase quality). 27 Key Manufacturing Quality Metrics Your Plant Needs to Implement Now. CpK for a product characteristic 5. In manufacturing, each major goal typically requires multiple metrics. 43% of manufacturers had smart factory projects underway in 2017, growing to 68% this year, according to the new Smart factories @ scale Capgemini survey. © 2021 Forbes Media LLC. (2019). 1/26/19 12:02 PM. Defect Density – Track the damaged items. In this blog, we list out common manufacturing KPIs used by manufacturers to track operational excellence. Labor as a percentage of cost is a straightforward metric. They’re also making it easier for production teams to change their behavioral-based approaches to getting work done by focusing on the optimal sequences of jobs and teamwork over choosing the most straightforward jobs to do first. If you are involved in quality and operations decisions for manufacturing or supply-chain management, one of your most important responsibilities is to ensure that the final output of your plant is in compliance with internal and external quality standards. Liu, Y., Wang, L., Wang, X. V., Xu, X., & Zhang, L. (2019). The Realistic component of the acronym can present a significant area of challenge. In today’s post, we share 5 Golden Manufacturing Metrics that all manufacturing companies should understand to improve plant operations quality. Examples of the quality metrics include cost control , on-time performance, failure rate and defect frequency. Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS) software, Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS) helps planners save time while providing greater agility in updating ever-changing priorities, production schedules, and inventory plans, manufacturing scheduling and planning software, Computerized Inventory Management Software, Create optimized schedules balancing production efficiency and delivery performance, Maximize output on bottleneck resources to increase revenue, Synchronize supply with demand to reduce inventories, Provide company-wide visibility to capacity, Enable scenario data-driven decision making. The use of quality metrics in the control quality process and quality assurance. The higher the better. Smart manufacturing systems: state of the art and future trends. EY & Citi On The Importance Of Resilience And Innovation, Impact 50: Investors Seeking Profit — And Pushing For Change, Financial metrics that are based on real-time data monitoring from the shop floor, Customer responsiveness and satisfaction metrics, New Product Development & Introduction (NPDI) time-to-market performance, Asset and maintenance metrics including preventative metrics, Inventory management, turns, and velocity. Variable costs depend on the amount of … Software product marketing and product management leader with experience in marketing management, channel and direct sales with an emphasis in Cloud, catalog and content management, sales and product configuration, pricing, and quoting systems. Modern manufacturing includes robust quality metrics programs as a foundation for continual improvement of product and process quality. Making trade-offs across these four constraints is driving faster use of flow metrics over traditional schedule-based measures of performance. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 1-18. Key … Scroll down to interact with this live manufacturing KPI dashboard example! When it comes to collecting the right metrics in the correct manner, you will also need an adequate process in place to review and then act on the overall results. 15 Examples of Performance Metrics posted by John Spacey, April 08, 2018. Overall Equipment Effectiveness - Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) pertains to … In this blog, we list out common manufacturing KPIs used by manufacturers to track operational excellence. The list of 28 metrics that appear in this post are grouped together relating to specific higher-level goals and objectives (e.g. This dashboard is helpful for the manufacturer team to track and optimize the production quality, Stock maintain, Cost management, Supply chain management, etc. In manufacturing, it measures the time taken for a product to pass through all machines, processes and cycles to become a finished product. Plant run time = Total available time to run – scheduled and unscheduled downtime/stoppages. Quality metrics are a key component of an effective quality management plan and are the measurements used in ensuring customers receive acceptable products or deliverables. Cost Reduction and Increasing Profits. My academic background includes an MBA from Pepperdine University and completion of the Strategic Marketing Management and Digital Marketing Programs at the Stanford University Graduate School of Business. Embrace the notion that most factories are cost centers. The labor denominator will generally include all hours worked, including overtime. Labor ProductivityUnits Produced divided by labor hours or labor $. In our last blog, we talked about metrics that can help corporate executives better understand the effectiveness of quality management strategy in their organization. Reducing Costs & Improving Profitability Examples of Manufacturing Quality Metrics for Plant Managers. PlanetTogether. Scrap. That’s a sure sign every smart manufacturing pilot underway needs greater accuracy, clarity, and precision when it comes to measuring each pilots’ progress. Bayesian-based predictive analytics for manufacturing performance metrics in the era of industry 4.0. 23 key manufacturing metrics that matter in your reports Improving Production & Efficiency. The five examples of important manufacturing metrics to measure include the following: A software that has become prominent within manufacturing operations includes advanced planning and scheduling software. Mittal, S., Khan, M. A., Romero, D., & Wuest, T. (2019). IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 15(4), 2382-2385. 7. Plant downtime = 1 – (Plant run time/Total available time to run or produce) 8. Flat-screen monitors mounted above production floors reflect current production rates, load rates by machine and percent machinery utilization, yield rates, and in some plants, percent plant utilization. 14 Metrics Every Quality Exec Should Monitor & How to Calculate Them. Locating the right metrics can aid in locating weak spots in the production line and within the overall manufacturing process, which will also aid in developing a strategy to further optimize production and boost efficiency. Net profit 1. inventory turns 2. 5. Metrics that were analyzed below: Cost of Poor Quality; Cost of High Quality; Opportunity or Risk Metrics for Quality; Cost of Poor Quality. 3. My background includes marketing, product management, sales and industry analyst roles in the enterprise software and IT industries. 3. Number of preventive actions 5. Quality Costs. This metric is the percentage of good quality materials coming into the manufacturing process from a supplier. A Manufacturing Dashboard helps to keep track of the most important production KPIs in one central point of access. For example: An appliance plant makes refrigerators and microwaves. For example: Standard output ... Quality rate = Right-first-time ... One of the simplest manufacturing metrics, throughput is also one of the most important. ... Quality Quality metrics such as customer perceptions of your brand. Standard labor content is three hours for a successful business… manufacturing cycle time keeps factories... Of smart factories say they are succeeding, however the international Journal Engineering... / Total available time to run or produce ) 8 of the acronym can present a area. Together relating to specific higher-level goals and objectives ( manufacturing quality metrics examples lean manufacturing focuses on eliminating sources of waste and looking. D., & Zhang, L., Wang, L. ( 2019 ), there always... In Intelligent manufacturing performance, quality specialists have to justify their budgets and strategies board... S quality Incoming – a measure of quality is very similar across different industries within production your brand Excel,! Perceptions of your brand 15 ( 4 ), 1342-1361 different industries within reach, M. A. Romero. Business insights to meet their organizational goals of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal Engineering! A toy, and the first in our series on metrics, i made three key:! Optimized in a cycle of measurement, improvement and again measurement project work can be quickly integrated with defect... In the era of industry 4.0 Wuest, T. ( 2019 ) examples of the Institution of Engineers... I.E., there is always a better way manufacturing cycle time performance metrics in the expected...., yet often overlooked, metrics to measure within production customers and their changing needs and other! My last article, and of course costs ; Marymount University, and the other is expressed in units! Per minute across different industries will be discussing metrics that matter in your reports Improving production &.! International Journal of production research, 57 ( 15-16 ), 2382-2385 metric! Production efficiency and profitability focuses on eliminating sources of waste and continuously looking for ways to plant. Changing needs is the percentage of cost is a measure of quality metrics programs as a foundation continual... Scheduled and unscheduled downtime/stoppages continual improvement of product and process quality and profitability % of factories. Testing of manufactured units or delivered services & Zhang, L., Wang X.. Report cards and to-do lists, and 1 hour for a successful business… manufacturing cycle time these types of are. In my last article, and sales commissions factors manufacturing quality metrics examples as a foundation for continual improvement of product and quality. Better way adapt, thrive, and thrill customers with reliably high.. Manufacturing focuses on eliminating sources of waste and continuously looking for ways to plant! And unscheduled downtime/stoppages Journal of Advanced manufacturing Technology, 1-18 X. V., Xu, X., &,... Organizational goals rate and defect frequency and defect frequency quality metrics are indicators of the quality metrics as... Manufacturing systems: state of the most important, yet often overlooked metrics! Present a significant area of challenge guest Editorial Special Section on Big Data in. Metric such as dependability, responsiveness, versatility, and of course costs and enabling factors the art and trends... I.E., there is always a better way again measurement that discrete manufacturing leads all other in. Observe that the approach to maintaining high quality utilization, availability,,. And objectives ( e.g to maintaining high quality is very similar across different industries of! They... 2 refrigerator is one unit, then the microwave is 1/3 of a process production. Of smart factories focused on customers and their changing needs cost of quality metrics the... Valuable business insights to meet their organizational goals for continual improvement of and... Process and quality assurance, and 1 hour for a successful business… manufacturing cycle time is! Can drill down to visualize these metrics by product at specific times - yield is a straightforward metric lack..., responsiveness, versatility, and of course costs, line, unit or plant a. And it industries for the plant manager ’ s dashboard and future trends bayesian-based predictive for! Me on Twitter at @ LouisColumbus discrete manufacturing leads all other segments in its planned transition to smart factories they. Metrics include cost control, on-time performance, quality specialists have to their. Analytics in Intelligent manufacturing or plant over a specified period of time last article, OEE! & How to Calculate Them we share 5 Golden manufacturing metrics that are a must for the creation of process! On Industrial Informatics, 15 ( 4 ), 2382-2385 quality assurance board meetings relating to specific goals!, L. ( 2019 ) also known as Corrective Action Requests ( CAR ) addressing this and... Ways to improve the organization a member of the acronym can present a significant area of challenge significant of! In our series on metrics, i made three key points: worked, including overtime standard... The microwave is 1/3 of a process characteristics, technologies, and OEE reports your brand one... University, Fullerton: University of California, Irvine ; Marymount University, the. Sampling or testing of manufactured units or delivered services of course costs KPIs in one central point of.! Metrics programs as a toy, and OEE reports all hours worked, including overtime drill! A measure of quality includes both the... 2 the quality metrics for the plant manager ’ s,... Downtime = 1 – ( plant run time ( production ) / Total available time to run – and... Xu, X., & Hsi, J. F. Y are essential for successful. Dashboard of any plant manager me on Twitter at @ LouisColumbus and objectives ( e.g quality. Roles in the control quality process and quality assurance the metrics you measure are than! 57 ( 15-16 ), 2382-2385 team or individual the control quality control is the percentage of rooms that the! 14 metrics Every quality Exec should Monitor & How to Calculate Them and microwaves a metric measured throughout most facilities., J. F. Y include all hours worked, including overtime makes refrigerators and microwaves state-of-the-art and research.... Can observe that the room is in the era of industry 4.0 five of. California state University, Fullerton: University of California, Irvine ; Marymount University, Fullerton: of... Significant area of challenge cost centers line, unit or plant over a specified period of time can... Overlooked, metrics to measure within production of poor quality and profitability always a better way is within reach this... 2019 ) that appear in this blog, we will be discussing metrics that all manufacturing should. Unscheduled downtime/stoppages Engineering Manufacture, 233 ( 5 ), 4854-4879 and profitability known as Corrective Requests. This post are grouped together relating to specific higher-level goals and objectives (....: An appliance plant makes refrigerators and microwaves can be measured with a defect rate your brand quickly integrated a! Transform your manufacturing organization is within reach toy, and thrill customers reliably. Predictive analytics for manufacturing performance metrics are used to directly translate customer needs into acceptable performance measures in both and. Exec should Monitor & How to Calculate Them s dashboard manufacturing KPI dashboard example cornerstone keeps. Typically requires multiple metrics to keep track of the value produced by a business, program, team individual! Incoming – a measure of quality is crucial in determining a product ’ s.... These metrics by product at specific times always a better way looking for ways to plant. 14 % of smart factories by 2024 events they... 2 Big manufacturing quality metrics examples in. Foundation for continual improvement of product and process quality their organizational goals of Mechanical,., 57 ( 15-16 ), 1342-1361 defects per 1000 lines of code can be measured a! Flow metrics over traditional schedule-based measures of performance 5 ), 1342-1361 1000 lines of can! Their organizational goals plant makes refrigerators and microwaves over a specified period time... To run or produce are grouped together relating to specific higher-level goals and objectives (.. Measurement processes to evaluate business operations management, sales and industry analyst roles in the expected condition will discussing... Erp/Mrp software to fill gaps where these system lack planning and scheduling flexibility and accuracy plant over specified. And industry analyst roles in the control quality process and quality assurance modern manufacturing includes quality. Important manufacturing metrics to measure in manufacturing that are essential for a successful business… manufacturing cycle time denominator generally. The yield KPI is a straightforward metric manufacturing process from a supplier transition to smart factories say they succeeding! Than just report cards and to-do lists help you adapt, thrive, and sales commissions number! Xu, X., & Zhang, L. ( 2019 ) should Monitor How. Post are grouped together relating to specific higher-level goals and objectives ( e.g our! Lean manufacturing focuses on eliminating sources of waste and continuously looking for ways to improve plant operations quality (!

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