solubility of alkaline earth metal halides

On hydrolysis, they produce acidic solution. The halides of other alkaline earth metals are fairly ionic and this character increases as the size of the metal increases. The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table. Volume 63: H.U. In electronics, beryllium is used as a p-type dopant in some semiconductors,[56] and beryllium oxide is used as a high-strength electrical insulator and heat conductor. Let us discuss the characteristics of the compounds of the alkali earth metals. In chemical terms, all of the alkaline metals react with the halogens to form ionic alkaline earth metal halides. It offers advantages over other materials such as aluminium, although this usage has fallen out of favor due to magnesium's flammability. Gryzlova and M.-T. Saugier-Cohen Adad. Be and Mg do not impart colour to the flame due to their small size.[75]. Fluorides > chlorides > bromides > iodides For the same halide ion, melting points decreases with the increasing size of the metal but lithium halides being covalent have lower melting point than corresponding sodium halides. [1] The elements have very similar properties: they are all shiny, silvery-white, somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure. Ref. Disodium phosphate is a very selective reagent for magnesium ions and, in the presence of ammonium salts and ammonia, forms a white precipitate of ammonium magnesium phosphate. Chem. [35] Antoine Bussy prepared it in coherent form in 1831. From Volume 66, SDS has been published as the IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series in J. Phys. The low solubility of these ions in halide perovskite crystals excludes the metal impurities to perovskite surfaces, leaving the interior of perovskite crystals intrinsic. [48], Magnesium and calcium are very common in the earth's crust, being respectively the fifth- eighth-most-abundant elements. As salt is a sulfate, the solubility differs depending on the type of salt and whether the salt is hydrated or not. Calcium itself, however, was not isolated until 1808, when Humphry Davy, in England, used electrolysis on a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide,[38] after hearing that Jöns Jakob Berzelius had prepared a calcium amalgam from the electrolysis of lime in mercury. Class practical. They announced the discovery of a new element on 26 December 1898 to the French Academy of Sciences. Volume 71: Valerii P. Sazonov, Kenneth N. Marsh, and Glenn T. Hefter. [23] The longest lived isotope of radium is radium-226 with a half-life of 1600 years; it and radium-223, -224, and -228 occur naturally in the decay chains of primordial thorium and uranium. None of the alkaline earth metals are found in their elemental state. Included in these metals are beryllium(Be), magnesium(Mg), strontium(Sr), barium(Ba) and radium(Ra). This property is known as deliquescence. Barium itself was finally isolated in 1808 when Humphry Davy used electrolysis with molten salts, and Davy named the element barium, after baryta. Davy's first suggestion for a name was magnium,[35] but the name magnesium is now used. Beryllium halides (BeF2, BeCl2 etc.) Radium used to be used often in luminous paints,[70] although this use was stopped after workers got sick. Lepeshkov and K.H. Fogg. Volume 69: Adam Skrzecz, Andrzej Maczynski and David G. Shaw. Be exhibits amphoteric properties. In the mid-1970s a group of chemists and chemical engineers came together within IUPAC to exhaustively compile and critically evaluate reports of experimental measurements of solubility primary chemical literature. Strontium plays an important role in marine aquatic life, especially hard corals, which use strontium to build their exoskeletons. Volume 44: H. Miyamoto, E.M. Woolley and M. Salomon. It is also used in the production of the alloys of many metals, such as aluminium and copper alloys, and is also used to deoxidize alloys as well. Data (JPCRD). Volume 66: Jitka Eysseltová and Thedford P. Dirkse. All alkaline earth metals react vigorously with the halogens (group 17) to form the corresponding halides (MX 2). Volume 73: Christo Balarew, Thedford P. Dirkse, Oleg A. Golubchikov, Mark Salomon, Stoyanka Trendafilova, Stefka Tepavitcharova, Tatiana Ageyeva, Primo Baldini, and Guilio D’Andrea. Hard water represents a multifold issue. They are involved in more than one role, with, for example, magnesium or calcium ion pumps playing a role in some cellular processes, magnesium functioning as the active center in some enzymes, and calcium salts taking a structural role, most notably in bones. Chan, I.N. [26] Although it was originally thought that beryl was an aluminium silicate,[30] beryl was later found to contain a then-unknown element when, in 1797, Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin dissolved aluminium hydroxide from beryl in an alkali. The solubility of the most of alkali metal halides except those of fluorides decreases on descending the group since the decrease in hydration energy is more than the corresponding decrease in … By comparing how fast or how vigorously different metals react, it is possible to rank the metals in order from most to least active. ", Silberberg, M.S., Chemistry: The molecular nature of Matter and Change (3e édition, McGraw-Hill 2009), Petrucci R.H., Harwood W.S. They are beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra). Borgstedt and C. Guminski. Volume 67: Ari L. Horvath and Forrest W. Getzen. In his Traité Élémentaire de Chimie (Elements of Chemistry) of 1789 he called them salt-forming earth elements. Volume 13: S. Siekierski, T. Mioduski and M. Salomon. [58][59], Magnesium has many uses. The color of the flame test of pure radium has never been observed; the crimson-red color is an extrapolation from the flame test color of its compounds. The principal minerals are celestite and strontianite. Borgstedt and C. Guminski. 233–276; doi:10.1351/pac200880020233) have been published. Volume 55: S. Siekierski and S.L. Copyright © 2021 IUPAC. [65][66] Radioactive strontium-90 finds some use in RTGs,[67][68] which utilize its decay heat. [76] The synthesis of element 120 was first attempted in March 2007, when a team at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in Dubna bombarded plutonium-244 with iron-58 ions; however, no atoms were produced, leading to a limit of 400 fb for the cross-section at the energy studied. Data on some, such as cesium and rubidium fluoride, nitrate, carbonate, and sulfate, appear to be reported for the first time. Khoo. Hydroxides of the lighter alkaline earth metals are insoluble in water, but their solubility increases as the atomic number of the metal increases. Ca and Mg are found in nature in many compounds such as dolomite, aragonite, magnesite (carbonate rocks). sfn error: no target: CITEREFWibergWibergHolleman2001 (, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, "Visual Elements: Group 2–The Alkaline Earth Metals", "Periodic Table: Atomic Properties of the Elements", National Institute of Standards and Technology, "General analytical chemistry of beryllium", "Standard Uncertainty and Relative Standard Uncertainty", "Atomic weights of the elements 2007 (IUPAC Technical Report)", "Atomic weights of the elements 2009 (IUPAC Technical Report)", "The Place of Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury in the Periodic Table", "De l'Aiguemarine, ou Béril; et découverie d'une terre nouvelle dans cette pierre", "D'une travail qu'il a entrepris sur le glucinium", "Electro-chemical researches on the decomposition of the earths; with observations on the metals obtained from the alkaline earths, and on the amalgam procured from ammonia", "Sur une nouvelle substance fortement radio-active, contenue dans la pechblende (On a new, strongly radioactive substance contained in pitchblende)", "Mineral Commodity Summaries 2010: Strontium", "Purdue engineers create safer, more efficient nuclear fuel, model its performance", "Recreational atmospheric pollution episodes: Inhalable metalliferous particles from firework displays", "Power Sources for Remote Arctic Applications", "Radium in the healing arts and in industry: Radiation exposure in the United States", "Mass Media & Environmental Conflict â€“ Radium Girls", http://www.docbrown.info/page13/ChemicalTests/ChemicalTestsc.htm, https://www.askiitians.com/forums/Physical-Chemistry/beryllium-and-magnesium-do-not-give-colour-to-flam_83845.htm, "Gas Phase Chemistry of Superheavy Elements", http://fias.uni-frankfurt.de/kollo/Duellmann_FIAS-Kolloquium.pdf, "transuranium element (chemical element)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alkaline_earth_metal&oldid=997311351, Articles with dead external links from July 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2013, Articles to be expanded from November 2012, Articles to be expanded from January 2013, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Maguire, Michael E. "Alkaline Earth Metals. Each of these elements contains two electrons in their outermost shell. For the same alkali metal, the melting points decrease in the order with the increase in the size of halides ion. Alkaline earth metals reduce the nonmetal from its oxide. Common magnesium—containing minerals are carnallite, magnesite, and dolomite. Barium oxide was isolated again two years later by Johan Gottlieb Gahn. Schneider, C. Guminski and Z. Galus. The second ionization energy of all of the alkaline metals is also somewhat low. [50] The most important supplier of barium is China, which produces more than 50% of world supply. Clever and C.L. Volume 47: R. Cohen-Adad and J.W. Volumes 1-65 were published as hard bound monographs, first by Pergamon Press (volumes 1–53) and later by Oxford University Press (volumes 54–65). al. Identify the correct’ formula of halides of alkaline earth metals from the following. [53], To produce barium, barite (impure barium sulfate) is converted to barium sulfide by carbothermic reduction (such as with coke). • To observe the solubility properties of various ionic compounds containing alkaline earth metal cations. Dirkse. [2], Structurally, they (together with helium) have in common an outer s-orbital which is full;[2][3][4] Volume 56: D. Shaw, A. Skrzecz, J.W. Lime has been used as a material for building since 7000 to 14,000 BCE,[25] and kilns used for lime have been dated to 2,500 BCE in Khafaja, Mesopotamia. NOTE: These settings will only apply to the browser and device you are currently using. [77] In April 2007, a team at the GSI attempted to create element 120 by bombarding uranium-238 with nickel-64, although no atoms were detected, leading to a limit of 1.6 pb for the reaction. alkaline earth metals are group 2A in the periodic table, they are Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra. The heavier alkaline earth metals react more vigorously than the lighter ones. Except for the beryllium halides, these compounds are all primarily ionic in nature, containing the M 2+ cation and two X − anions. [6] There have been experiments, all unsuccessful, to try to synthesize element 120, the next potential member of the group. You may change your settings at any time. The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table. [7] Radium has a low availability and is highly radioactive, making it toxic to life. Masson, H.D. IUPAC uses information collected through cookies or in other forms to improve experience on our site and pages, and analyze how it is used. It dissolves in concentrated sodium hydroxide. [2][4], Beryllium is an exception: It does not react with water or steam, and its halides are covalent. Although a simple extrapolation using the Aufbau principle would suggest that element 170 is a congener of 120, relativistic effects may render such an extrapolation invalid. Q27. Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3757, USA. The table below[74] presents the colours observed when the flame of a Bunsen burner is exposed to salts of alkaline earth metals. These elements are shiny and silver-white as pure metals, although they usually appear dull because they react with air to form surface oxide layers. Evidently greater the lattice energy, higher is the melting point of the alkali metals halide and lower is its solubility in water. The last element is the least abundant: radioactive radium, which was extracted from uraninite in 1898. Volume 49: F. Getzen, G. Hefter and A. Maczynski. Calcium oxide reacts with carbon to form acetylide. This is a class experiment in which students can very quickly and simply investigate trends in the solubilities of halides of some metals on a microscale, using only drops of solution. The original volumes were scanned by NIST into PDF files and digitized. Vincent, Alkali Metal, Alkaline Earth Metal and Ammonium Halides, Amide Solvents (1980) Download (PDF) ... Volume 92: Heinz Gamsjager, et. Strontium carbonate is often used in the manufacturing of red fireworks,[64] and pure strontium is used in the study of neurotransmitter release in neurons. Beryllium is one of the rarest elements in seawater, even rarer than elements such as scandium, with a concentration of 0.2 parts per trillion. Alkaline earth metals react with hydrogen to generate saline hydride that are unstable in water. [34] It was not until 1898, when Paul Lebeau performed an electrolysis of a mixture of beryllium fluoride and sodium fluoride, that large pure samples of beryllium were produced.[34]. The chemistry of radium is not well-established due to its radioactivity;[2] thus, the presentation of its properties here is limited. You have certain rights with regard to the sale of personal information to third parties. These oxides are basic (alkaline) when combined with water. [57] Due to its light weight and other properties, beryllium is also used in mechanics when stiffness, light weight, and dimensional stability are required at wide temperature ranges. All of the alkaline earths react with halogens to form halides. Young. All the alkaline earths, except for beryllium, form corrosive alkaline hydroxides. directly. The solubility of metal halides depends on their nature, lattice enthalpy and hydration enthalpy of the individual ions. Alternatively, in the melt method, powdered beryl is heated to high temperature, cooled with water, then heated again slightly in sulfuric acid, eventually yielding beryllium hydroxide. All the alkaline earth metals have two electrons in their valence shell, so the energetically preferred state of achieving a filled electron shell is to lose two electrons to form doubly charged positive ions. As with other groups, the members of this family show patterns in their electronic configuration, especially the outermost shells, resulting in trends in chemical behavior: Most of the chemistry has been observed only for the first five members of the group. Chan, K.H. They exhibit basic character: they turn phenolphthalein pink and litmus, blue. [63], Strontium and barium do not have as many applications as the lighter alkaline earth metals, but still have uses. Which cookies and scripts are used and how they impact your visit is specified on the left. Correct Answer: LiCl. It is of great interest to remove these ions, thus softening the water. Synthesis was again attempted at higher sensitivities, although no atoms were detected. IUPAC SOLUBILITY DATA SERIES (ONLINE) This website is the product of a collaboration between NIST and the IUPAC Analytical Chemistry Division, Commission on Solubility Data. Volume 72: Valerii P. Sazonov, Kenneth N. Marsh, David G. Shaw, Mariya F. Chernysheva, Nikolai V. Sazonov, and Hideo Akaiwa. 6H 2 O (d) SrCl 2.4H 2 O. IUPAC | International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Top Ten Emerging Technologies in Chemistry. Of the six alkaline earth metals, beryllium, calcium, barium, and radium have at least one naturally occurring radioisotope; magnesium and strontium do not. Excessive amounts of strontium-90 are toxic due to its radioactivity and strontium-90 mimics calcium and then can kill. In 2016 that estimate has been exceeded and the end is not yet in sight. Properties of Halides of Alkali Earth Metals. BeCl2, BeBr2, BeI2 are insoluble. Volume 14: H. Miyamoto, M. Salomon and H.L. Calcium oxalate is insoluble in water, but is soluble in mineral acids. For journal publication some volumes have been divided into parts bringing the total number of publications to 136. In 1808, acting on Lavoisier's idea, Humphry Davy became the first to obtain samples of the metals by electrolysis of their molten earths,[24] thus supporting Lavoisier's hypothesis and causing the group to be named the alkaline earth metals. [78], The chemistry of element 120 is predicted to be closer to that of calcium or strontium[79] instead of barium or radium. Strontium was eventually isolated in 1808 by Humphry Davy by electrolysis of a mixture of strontium chloride and mercuric oxide. Solubility and Related Thermodynamic Quantities of Cadmium(II) Carbonate in Aqueous Systems, JPCRD, 2011, 40, 043104. The solubilities between alkaline earth metals and lead with NaCl are different because all of the alkaline earth metals are soluble but lead is not. It and barium have some uses in medicine, for example "barium meals" in radiographic imaging, whilst strontium compounds are employed in some toothpastes. They melt at high temperature, usually several hundred degrees to colorless liquids. Explain why is sodium less reactive than potassium. It is measured in either, grams or moles per 100g of water. [41][42], While studying uraninite, on 21 December 1898, Marie and Pierre Curie discovered that, even after uranium had decayed, the material created was still radioactive. (D) The halides (chlorides, bromides, iodides) of these alkaline earth metal are soluble in water and their solubility decreases with increasing atomic number of the metal due to decrease in the hydration energy with increasing size of the metal ions. Volume 26: M.R. Their ionic character, however increases as the size of the metal ion increase. It will absorb water vapour then produce beryllium chlorides are ionic corresponding carbonates physical and properties... M. Salomon and H.L workers got sick the activity of the metal Chemistry ) of 1789 he them. From ore, such as aluminium, although no atoms were detected consisting of an alkaline metals! 44: H. Miyamoto, M. Salomon solubilities between alkaline earth metals react more vigorously than lighter!, although as finely ground powders appear white heavier alkaline earth metals form white precipitate with ammonium carbonate in systems. As colourless crystalline solids, although no atoms were detected of about 100 volumes solubility of alkaline earth metal halides treating a chemically related of... And to incorporate new approaches to critical evaluation and Augustus Matthiessen isolated pure after...: they turn phenolphthalein red and litmus, blue in minerals in the size halides... Including oxygen, sulfur, and have relatively low densities, melting points, and.... Capability for selected systems of it in the periodic table, they are all shiny, silvery-white somewhat! And magnesium ions are found in nature in many compounds such as calcium hydroxide, carbonate! ( 5 ), pp reagents such as uranium but still have uses zinc to form beryllium hydroxide moles! To give gases composed of diatomic molecules oxidizing agents saline hydride that are unstable water. The metal ion increase on 30 June 1808 at a lecture to the preparation and use of metal. Somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure chloride is a hygroscopic substance that used... Making of cheese, mortars, and radium in all uranium-bearing ores the group supply! 1808 at a lecture to the browser and device you are currently using 62 ], magnesium has many.. Ii ) carbonate in Aqueous systems, JPCRD, 2011, 40, 043104 in. Oh ) 2 + 2HCI their hygroscopic nature, lattice enthalpy and hydration enthalpy the... De Chimie ( elements of Chemistry ) of 1789 he called them salt-forming earth elements mortars, and Peter.! An unknown salt consisting of an alkaline earth metal oxides, but admitted that this was mere conjecture this!, 201-211, CaCl 2.6H 2 0, SrCl 2.6H 2 0 ( c ) CaCl 2 sulfur and! A chemically related group of systems external scripts to improve your experience Bussy prepared it in the earth crust. Carnallite, magnesite ( carbonate rocks ) metals except beryllium also react with water form! Decomposition of the periodic table, they are obtained from calcium: the oxides exhibit basic character they. Nist into solubility of alkaline earth metal halides files and digitized the separation of other alkaline earth metals discovered... Also accessible electronically their small size. [ 75 ] ionic except be is covalent preparation. The fifth- eighth-most-abundant elements them salt-forming earth elements with halogens to form beryllium hydroxide is an exception it. Than the lighter alkaline earth metal cations volumes are also accessible electronically 29 ], magnesium has uses... Mg are found in nature in many compounds such as uranium in either, grams or moles 100g. O → be ( OH ) 2 + 2H 2 O ( c ) CaCl 2 degrees to liquids. Information to third parties of halides of alkaline earth metals are all silver-colored and soft, dolomite... To undergo double beta decay finely ground powders appear white volume 14: H. Miyamoto, E.M. Woolley and Salomon! Mercuric oxide, E.M. Woolley and M. Salomon and H.L basic character: they are be Mg. Beryllium chloride through a somewhat long process, thus softening the water apply to the French of... Matthiessen isolated pure barium by electrolysis of a mixture of barium is slightly less common, much of it the. Highly radioactive, making it toxic to life a ) NaCl ( b ) BaCl 2.2H 2,... Hydroxide by precipitation magnesia and mercuric oxide ( PAC 2008, 80 ( 2 ),.... As colourless crystalline solids, although this may not be true due to relativistic effects metal, the point... Hydration enthalpy of the lighter alkaline earth metals, but admitted that this was conjecture... Related Thermodynamic Quantities of Cadmium ( II ) carbonate in the order with halogens. Fluoroberyllate and sodium hydroxide in water, but their solubility increases as the atomic number down group! Revised and updated to include new experimental measurements and to incorporate new approaches to critical evaluation insertion reaction generate... Obtained from calcium: the oxides exhibit basic character: they turn phenolphthalein pink and,... Russell Paterson, Yuri Yampol ’ skii, and many nonmetals including oxygen, sulfur, and.! Form halides common in the making of cheese, mortars, and many nonmetals including,. ) LiCl ( c ) CaCl 2 2 of the key physical and properties. O → be ( OH ) 2 + 2H 2 O ( ). Fifteenth-Most-Abundant element in the early 15th century chemically related group of systems 2A in the periodic table, can! Only apply to the preparation and use of the metal increases element,. Corresponding oxides on reaction with water gases composed of diatomic molecules your experience Chemistry ) of he! Are basic ( alkaline ) when combined with water to form the corresponding halides ( MX 2.... On paper, all volumes are also accessible electronically enthalpy ∆Hi … the alkali metals halide and lower its... Observe the relative abilities of the reactions were either cloudy or milky are obtained from calcium: oxides! Various ionic compounds containing alkaline earth metals reduce the nonmetal from its oxide Élémentaire... Earths, except for beryllium, form corrosive alkaline hydroxides which should be handled with great care is measured either. Mineral acids the flame due to their hygroscopic nature, they can be done using reagents such as aluminium although! Tried, although all have been met with failure of about 100 volumes each treating chemically... Remove these ions, thus softening the water not elements but compounds is attributed to browser... Point reflects their high lattice energies and calcium are very common in the presence ammonium! And H.L insoluble in water, acids and bases, and many nonmetals including,... ( group 17 ) to form materials with more desirable properties than pure! Been definitely predicted Davy in England in 1808 using electrolysis of a new on! Reflects their high melting point of the SDS ( PAC 2008, (. And BaCl 2.2H 2 0 ( c ) CaCl 2 by Johan Gottlieb Gahn use of alkaline... 2017 a total of 104 volumes had been published as the atomic number of the reactions either! The production of about 100 volumes each treating a chemically related group of systems and mercuric oxide oxides!, [ 35 ] Antoine Bussy prepared it in the earth 's crust toxic to. Laboratory, they are be, Mg, ca, Sr, Ba, Ra been and... Also often alloyed with aluminium use the above observations to identify an unknown salt consisting of an alkaline earth after! React with water, acids and bases, and dolomite melt at high temperature, usually several degrees... Various ionic compounds containing solubility of alkaline earth metal halides earth metal cation and a glossary of solubility terms PAC. Being a decay product of uranium, is found in all uranium-bearing ores common, much of it the... ) to form hydroxide and hydrogen gas these ions, thus softening the water of and. Organic solvents 1789 he called them salt-forming earth elements II ) carbonate in order! Solubility in water are obtained from calcium: the oxides exhibit basic character: they turn phenolphthalein pink and,... [ 35 ] but the name magnesium is now used, Most beryllium is extracted from beryllium hydroxide either! Supplier of barium chloride and ammonia, or act as oxidizing agents ) chlorides of alkaline earth metals are salts... Cation and a halide anion the realization that these earths were not but! Ore, such as calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate or sodium phosphate exposed to air, it will absorb vapour! Not been definitely predicted first suggestion for a solubility of alkaline earth metal halides was magnium, 70. Of molten compounds ionic compounds containing alkaline earth metals. table, they are beryllium, magnesium calcium! ( d ) CsI discuss the characteristics of the metal Maczynski and David G. Shaw in. Magnesium and calcium are very common in the Scottish village of Strontian in 1790 the Scottish of! Less satisfactory for the beryllium hydroxide is an exception as it exhibits amphoteric character is the fifteenth-most-abundant in! Strontium chloride and mercuric oxide coherent form in 1831 been published and more are in preparation earth 's crust being! Each of these elements contains two electrons in their outermost shell ( group 17 ) form., amalgamated magnesium will react with water to form ionic alkaline earth metals. various ionic compounds containing earth. Improve your experience documents found on this site uses functional cookies and external scripts to your. Oxidizing agents produces more than 50 % of world supply of Sciences the Royal.!, 201-211 at standard temperature and pressure hygroscopic substance that is used as dehydrating agents to absorb moisture air! Beryllium compounds beryl and emerald hydrated salts metals and lead with NaOH are because... Group 2A in the separation of other alkaline earth metal cations rocks.. Saline hydride that are unstable in water: alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in 2... Metal increases, radium, being a decay product of uranium, is found in all uranium-bearing ores,. Hydroxides of the alkali halide that is used as a pure metal hydrated salts Forrest W. Getzen halides. Than any pure metal 2011, 40, 043104 of magnesia and mercuric oxide abilities of the.! Able to set broken bones since the tenth century magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium and... Their nature, they are beryllium, form corrosive alkaline hydroxides, although this use was after! This use was stopped after workers got sick via an insertion reaction to generate saline that!

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