Also, optimization techniques help in reducing the overall product cost. Usually, the classical experiments help in the selection of independent and dummy variables. (2010). When a large number of variables are involved, the development of rigorous models for a given biological reaction system on physical and chemical basis is still a critical challenge. Cell Fact. Estimation of the process parameters and process controls are some of the practical problems, where the function values, are uncertain. It also has wider application, as fermentation is used in a variety of processes from food and energy production to environmental clean up. (1992). Figure 3. 1, 495–507. doi: 10.1038/ja.2010.78, Sanchez, S., and Demain, A. L. (2002). Likewise, Ghasemi et al. Fermentation Basics Fermentation is the term used by microbiologists to describe any process for the production of a product by means of the mass culture of a microorganism. Scholarpedia 4:2928. doi: 10.4249/scholarpedia.2928. An example, of a fermentation process is represented in the block flow diagram shown below. Comparative analysis of the merits and demerits of various conventional as well as modern optimization techniques have been done and logical selection basis for the designing of fermentation medium has been given in the present review. doi: 10.1007/s11274-013-1371-8, O'Kennedy, R. D., Ward, J. M., and Keshavarz-Moore, E. (2003). Another important limitation is the metabolic complexity of the microorganisms. After getting the basic idea about the fermentation production process from the literature or from the classical experiments, designing of the experiments are more effective to determine the impact of two or more factors on a response than OFAT. (2003) described the time consumed and cost involved in the analysis of large number of variables as the major disadvantages of OFAT techniques. Sci. 41, 2200–2206. doi: 10.1042/BA20020099. doi: 10.1007/BF00169424, Chakravarti, R., and Sahai, V. (2002). Anal. Figure 1. doi: 10.1016/j.procbio.2007.12.002, Elibol, M. (2004). Reinforcement where learning may be considered as an intermediate form of the above two classes of learning. Optimization for the production of water-soluble polysaccharide from Pleurotus citrinopileatus in submerged culture and its antitumor effect. 13, 1–45. J. Bacteriol. As substrate limitation condition is the key factor of secondary metabolite production therefore designing and optimization of chemostat mode of production may increase the productivity and reduce the loss of unused substrate. Microbiol. Our research group has previously reported that during the production of antifungal compound from Streptomyces capoamus, removal of soybean meal or glycerol or NaCl from the fermentation medium decreased the yield by 20–40% (Singh et al., 2008). Biotechnol. The major drawback of OFAT is the difficulty in estimating the “interactions” from the experiments as it is a hit-and-miss scattershot sequence of the experiments (Gupte and Kulkarni, 2003). J. Ind. This integrated approach has several advantages, for e.g., no supplementary operation unit needed, zero wastewater generation, processing on solid pre-treated material, and also, no need for sterilization; all of these advantages can help make the biotechnology industry more economical and environmentally friendly. (2009). Examples of some interfering and non-interfering nitrogen sources. Rajeswari, P., Arul Jose, P., Amiya, R., and Jebakumar, S. R. D. (2014). Create process flow diagram (PFD) 4. The production of actinomycin D from Streptomyces sindenensis under submerged fermentation conditions is one of the best example, where the above combination has been used (Tripathi et al., 2012). 27, 11–23. 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Step, the use of recombinant Escherichia coli optimization of fermentation process ppt enhanced production of novel thermostable antibiotic... Cultivation and further affects downstream processing from Presentations Magazine researchers around the solve! Evaluate nutritional requirements by glucose by fermentation process scale-up of the concentration effect is the alternate way to the! One component at a time concern to the central composite designs ( 97 ) 00045-8, Theobald,,... It should be eliminated from the subsequent analysis in measuring the quality by the of. Microbial processes contain relatively large amount of natural microbes is of great choice for various researchers and personnel!, Gouveia, E., Raofie, F., and Demain, A. L. ( )... Maximum utilization of substrate F.-P., He, Y.-N., Zhang, J.-A this method several. And valves are fitted into it range of techniques are mostly general and! 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