Const. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. The third of these larger works is a refutation of the iconoclastic synod of 815 (ed. He brought to trial before a synod several ecclesiastics opposed to images and forced an abbot named John and also Bishop Anthony of Sylaeum to submit. Upon this he was arrested at midnight in March, 815, and banished to the monastery of St. Theodore, which he had built on the Bosporus. Another work justifying the veneration of images was edited by Pitra under the title "Antirrheticus adversus iconomachos" (Spicil. DOWNLOAD OPTIONS download 1 file . The patriarch yielded to the wishes of the emperor in order to avert more serious evil. An unusually short lifespan might indicate that your Nicephorus ancestors lived in harsh conditions. The pseudo-synod now commanded that he should no longer be called patriarch. However, Michael would not consent to an actual restoration of images such as Nicephorus demanded from him, for he declared that he did not wish to interfere in religious matters and would leave everything as he had found it. Later the patriarch sent several learned bishops and abbots to convince him of the truth of the position of the Patriarch on the veneration of images. The Chronography offered a universal history from the time of Adam and Eve to his own time. On the other side Theodore, Plato, and the majority of their adherents recognized the patriarch as the lawful head of the Byzantine Church, and sought to bring the refractory back to his obedience. Emperor Michael was an honourable man of good intentions, but weak and dependent. His house was surrounded by crowds of angry Iconoclasts who shouted threats and invectives. Although still a layman, he was known by all to be very religious and highly educated. ÏÏÏÎ¿Ï ÎÎ¬Î»Î»Î¹ÏÏÎ¿Ï ÎÎ±Î½Î¸ÏÏÎ¿Ï Î»Î¿Ï), of Constantinople(c. 1256âc. Later he was recalled to the capital and given charge of the great hospital. The dogmatic treatises, chiefly on this subject, that he wrote are as follows: a lesser "Apology for the Catholic Church concerning the newly arisen Schism in regard to Sacred Images" (Migne, P.G., C, 833-849), written 813-14; a larger treatise in two parts; the first part is an "Apology for the pure, unadulterated Faith of Christians against those who accuse us of idolatry" (Migne, loc. The emperor had also recourse to the papacy in reference to these quarrels and had received a letter of approval from Leo. The emperor then summoned Nicephorus to him, and the patriarch went to the imperial palace accompanied by the abbots and monks. Serruys, Paris, 1904). The two treatises discuss passages from Macarius Magnes, Eusebius of Caesarea, and from a writing wrongly ascribed to Epiphanius of Cyprus. Nicephorus then went to his former friend and fervently asked forgiveness, but Sapricius was adamant. "St. 11. Theodore declared that silence under these conditions would be treason and expressed sympathy with the patriarch whom the emperor forbade to hold public service in the church. Ecclesiastical approbation. He was born in 758 in Constantinople to a nobleman who served as secretary to the Byzantine emperor. Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church Fathers, Summa, Bible and more all for only $19.99... Patriarch of Constantinople, 806-815, b. about 758; d. 2 June, 829. Imprimatur. With a protest against this mode of procedure the patriarch notified Leo that he found it necessary to resign the patriarchal see. At the end of his life he was revered and after death regarded as a saint. MLA citation. The catalog of the accepted books of the Old and New Testaments is followed by the antilegomena (including Revelation) and the apocrypha. A large number of the laity were also present on this occasion and the patriarch with the clergy and people remained in the church the entire night in prayer. He assumed the Patriarchal Throne of Constantinople in 806 and became a zealous defender of the holy Icons. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. Bishop Anthony's acquiescence was merely feigned. Upon the death of Patriarch Tarasius (25 February, 806), there was great division among the clergy and higher court officials as to the choice of his successor. Saint Nicephorus was a dignitary at the court of the empress Irene (797-802), and then after receiving monastic tonsure, he became known for his piety. 0668 First Siege of Constantinople: This attack lasts off and on for seven years, with the Muslim forces generally spending the winters on the island of Cyzicus, a few miles south of Constantinople, and only sailing against the city during the spring and summer months.The Greeks are able to fend off repeated attacks with a weapon desperately feared by the Arabs: Greek Fire. Nikephoros at first replied to his removal from his office by excommunication, but was at last obliged to yield to force, and was taken to one of the cloisters he had founded, Tou Agathou, and later to that called Tou Hagiou Theodorou. Regrettably, I can't reply to every letter, but I greatly appreciate your feedback — especially notifications about typographical errors and inappropriate ads. His house was surrounded by crowds of angry Iconoclasts who shouted threats and invectives. The saint was a zealous defender of the holy Icons. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Donald J. 11. His feast is celebrated on this day both in the Greek and Roman Churches; the Greeks also observe 2 June as the day of his death. Kirsch, Johann Peter. ABBYY GZ download. The leaders were the abbots, Plato of Saccadium and Theodore of Studium, and Theodore's brother, Archbishop Joseph of Thessalonica. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. The SSDI is a searchable database of more than 70 million names. Contact information. Moreover, the patriarch now sent the customary written notification of his induction into office (Synodica) to the pope. With two other officials of high rank he represented the Empress Irene in 787 at the Second Council of Nicaea (the Seventh Ecumenical Council), which declared the doctrine of the Church respecting images. In the same year, which was the first year of the reign of Nicephorus, Aron Admirhas[Aron Admirhas is the Medieval Latin spelling of the name of caliph HÄrÅ«n al-RashÄ«d (âAaron the Justâ; 763-809).] APA citation. Theodotus was consecrated 1 April, 815. Solesm., IV, 233-91). First published in 1880. If you want to read (in French) the quality of his insults against â¦ 946-974), the poetic After founding a monastery near the Black Sea, he was chosen despite being a layman to succeed to the office of patriarch of Constantinople in 806, succeeding St. Tarasius. If you want to read (in French) the quality of his insults against â¦ This article was transcribed for New Advent by Donald J. When Constantine VI and Irene came to the imperial throne and restored tâ¦ Kirsch, J.P. (1911). At the end of his life he was revered and after death regarded as a saint. 0 In the 14th century Nicephorus Callisti undertook a complete church history which covers in its extant form the first six centuries. The book was first published in 1958; Nicephorus, patriarch of Constantinople (806-815)died in 829 and is now a Saint, of course. 1335), the last of the Greek ecclesiastical historians. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Donald J. Nicephorus." Nikephoros I or Nicephorus I (Greek: Νικηφόρος Α΄, Nikēphoros I; c. 758 – April 5, 828) was a Christian Byzantine writer and Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from April 12, 806, to March 13, 815.. He commanded the patriarch to call a synod, which was held in 809, and had Plato and several monks forcibly brought before it. Theodore set forth, by speech and writing, the reasons for the action of the strict party and firmly maintained his position. Both these treatises were edited by Pitra; the first Epikrisis in "Spicilegium Solesmense", I, 302-335; the second Antirresis in the same, I, 371-503, and IV, 292-380. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. Emperor Nicephorus considered it important to have this matter settled and, at his wish the new patriarch with the concurrence of a synod composed of a small number of bishops, pardoned Joseph and, in 806, restored him to his office. Then Nicephorus called together an assembly of bishops and abbots at the Church of St. Sophia at which he excommunicated the perjured Bishop Anthony of Sylaeum. When Nicephorus demanded the confession of faith, before the coronation, Leo put it off.  His Historia Ecclesiastica, in eighteen books, starts the historical narrative down to 610. His studies taught him experimental methods in science and he graduated to become a professor at the college. the name of three Byzantine emperors. A final and, as it appears, especially important treatise on this question has not yet been published. Transcription. Const. Emperor Nicephorus now took violent measures. He was guarded by soldiers and not allowed to perform any official act. cit., 535-834); the second part contains the "Antirrhetici", a refutation of a writing by the Emperor Constantine Copronymus on images (loc. Nicephorus became known for his intellect and his eloquence, and received the post of imperial commissioner. 510 Views . New York: Robert Appleton Company. He brought to trial before a synod several ecclesiastics opposed to images and forced an abbot named John and also Bishop Anthony of Sylaeum to submit. In this city lived also the presbyter Sapricius, with whom Nicephorus was very friendly, so that they were considered as brothers. In the year 806 he was elevated to the patriarchal throne. Moreover, he favoured the heretical Paulicians and the Iconoclasts and drained the people by oppressive taxes, so that he was universally hated. From 1880 to 2018 less than 5 people per year have been born with the first name Nicephorus. "St. Later the patriarch sent several learned bishops and abbots to convince him of the truth of the position of the Patriarch on the veneration of images. The patriarch endeavoured to establish monastic discipline among the monks, and to suppress double monasteries which had been forbidden by the Seventh Ecumenical Council. Boon. Both these treatises were edited by Pitra; the first Epikrisis in "Spicilegium Solesmense", I, 302-335; the second Antirresis in the same, I, 371-503, and IV, 292-380. My email address is webmaster at newadvent.org. At this time the emperors Valerian (253-259) and Gallius (260-268) began to persecute Christians, and one of the first brought before the court was the priest Sapricius. In December, 814, Nicephorus had a long conference with the emperor on the veneration of images but no agreement was reached. Saint Nicephorus was a dignitary at the court of the Empress Irene (797-802). However, Michael would not consent to an actual restoration of images such as Nicephorus demanded from him, for he declared that he did not wish to interfere in religious matters and would leave everything as he had found it. Theodore, however, was an iconodule and came into conflict with the emperor who removed him from his position and then had him scourged and tortured before banishing him. Nicephorus added to this second part seventy-five extracts from the writings of the Fathers [edited by Pitra, "Spicilegium Solesmense", I (Paris, 1852), 227-370]; in two further writings, which also apparently belong together, passages from earlier writers, that had been used by the enemies of images to maintain their opinions, are examined and explained. Copyright © 2020 by Kevin Knight. Michael succeeded in reconciling the patriarch and Theodore of Studium. Another work justifying the veneration of images was edited by Pitra under the title "Antirrheticus adversus iconomachos" (Spicil. Gregoras, Nicephorus, 1295-1359 or 60. He was mild in his ecclesiastical and monastical rules and non-partisan in his historical treatment of the period from 602 to 769 (Historia syntomos, breviarium). Leo now raised to the patriarchate Theodotus, a married, illiterate layman who favoured iconoclasm. Nicephorus also left two small historical works; one known as the Breviarium", the other the "Chronographis", both are edited by C. de Boor, "Nicephori archiep. Saint Nicephorus was born in Constantinople about the year 758, of pious parents; his father Theodore endured exile and tribulation for the holy icons during the reign of Constantine Copronymus (741-775). But the patriarch would not recognize the synod and paid no attention to the summons. This, however, did not discourage the resolute opponents of the "Adulterine Heresy". Emperor from 802. St. Nicephorus. February 1, 1911. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. The Holy Martyr Nicephorus lived in the city of Syrian Antioch. Nicephorus stood in the forefront of the battle against iconoclasm. The popular general, Leo the Armenian, now became emperor, 11 July, 813. After the murder of the Emperor Leo, 25 December, 820, Michael the Amorian ascended the throne and the defenders of the veneration of images were now more considerately treated. He received Holy Orders and was consecrated bishop on Easter Sunday, 12 April 806. Correspondance de Nicéphore Grégoras. cit., 535-834); the second part contains the "Antirrhetici", a refutation of a writing by the Emperor Constantine Copronymus on images (loc. The new emperor promised, in writing, to defend the faith and to protect both clergy and monks, and was crowned with much solemnity by the Patriarch Nicephorus. Nicephorus added to this second part seventy-five extracts from the writings of the Fathers [edited by Pitra, "Spicilegium Solesmense", I (Paris, 1852), 227-370]; in two further writings, which also apparently belong together, passages from earlier writers, that had been used by the enemies of images to maintain their opinions, are examined and explained. The opponents of the patriarch were condemned, the Archbishop of Thessalonica was deposed, the Abbots Plato and Theodore with their monks were banished to neighbouring islands and cast into various prisons. New York: Robert Appleton Company. For this act Joseph had been deposed and banished. Leo now raised to the patriarchate Theodotus, a married, illiterate layman who favoured iconoclasm. His action was regarded by the strict church party as a violation of ecclesiastical law and a scandal. Nicephorus soon gave further cause for antagonism.  His remains were solemnly brought back to Constantinople by Methodios I of Constantinople on March 13, 847, and interred in the Church of the Holy Apostles, where they were annually the object of imperial devotion. The direct elevation of a Iayman to the patriarchate, as had already happened in the case of Tarasius, aroused opposition in the ecclesiastical party among the clergy and monks. Nicephorus (feast day March 13) spent most of his life close to the throne, during a time when political change was the only constant. My email address is webmaster at newadvent.org. Nicephorus fell ill; when he recovered the emperor called upon him to defend his course before a synod of bishops friendly to iconoclasm. For this opposition the Abbot Plato was imprisoned for twenty-four days at the command of the emperor. How unique is the name Nicephorus? On the advice of Nicephorus he put the heretical and seditious Paulicians to death and tried to suppress the Iconoclasts. Paris, Société d'édition "Les Belles lettres", 1927 (OCoLC)607728692: Named Person: Nicephorus Gregoras; Nicephorus Gregoras: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: Nicephorus Gregoras; Rodolphe Guilland Attaleiates reported that Botaniates was able to keep command over his mounted troops as he extricated them from being overrun by the Pecheneg horde. The Catholic Encyclopedia. Ecclesiastical approbation. There he devoted himself to ascetic practices and to the study both of secular learning, as grammar, mathematics, and philosophy, and the Scriptures. This is especially useful for apocrypha for which only fragmentary texts have survived. They all repudiated the interference of the emperor in dogmatic questions and once more rejected Leo's â¦ Died July 26, 811. Emperor Michael was an honourable man of good intentions, but weak and dependent. Nicephorus first had a long, private conversation with the emperor, in which he vainly endeavoured to dissuade Leo from his opposition to the veneration of images. He asserted his love and his attachment to the patriarch, and said he would withdraw all opposition if the patriarch would acknowledge the violation of law by removing the priest Joseph. opuscula historica" in the "Bibliotheca Teubneriana" (Leipzig, 1880). Defending himself against the accusation that he and his companions were schismatic, he declared that he had kept silent as long as possible, had censured no bishops, and had always included the name of the patriarch in the liturgy. Kirsch, Johann Peter. But, through a letter written by Archbishop Joseph, the course which he and the strict church party followed became public in 808, and caused a sensation. With fearless energy the Patriarch Nicephorus now proceeded against the machinations of the Iconoclasts. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11050a.htm. After crowning MICHAEL I, he inspired massacres of "heretic" Paulicians. Nicephorus first had a long, private conversation with the emperor, in which he vainly endeavoured to dissuade Leo from his opposition to the veneration of images. The emperor then summoned Nicephorus to him, and the patriarch went to the imperial palace accompanied by the abbots and monks. The emperor then commanded the abbots to maintain silence upon the matter and forbade them to hold meetings. In 795 a priest named Joseph had celebrated the unlawful marriage of Emperor Constantine VI (780-97) with Theodota, during the lifetime of Maria, the rightful wife of the emperor, whom he had set aside. Next to each book is the count of its lines, his stichometry, to which we can compare our accepted texts and judge how much has been added or omitted. On 2 October, 811, with the assent of the patriarch, Michael Rhangabe, brother-in-law of Stauracius, who raised to the throne. MLA citation. In 809 Theodore and Plato sent a joint memorial, through the Archmandrite Epiphanius, to Pope Leo III, and later, Theodore laid the matter once more before the pope in a letter, in which he besought the successor of St. Peter to grant a helping hand to the East, so that it might not be overwhelmed by the waves of the "Adulterine Heresy". Kirsch, J.P. (1911). This champion of the orthodox view in the second contest over the veneration of images belonged to a noted family of Constantinople. Boon. Nicephorus the General The Battle of Zygos Pass (1053) is where Nicephorus first caught the attention of his contemporaries and historians with a heroic feat that made him famous. Nicephorus was appointed by emperor Constantine VII to be the military governor of the Anatolikon Theme in 945. Nihil Obstat. Shortly after this Nicephorus sought solitude on the Thracian Bosporus, where he had founded a monastery. After vain theological disputes, in December 814, there followed personal insults. The uncanonical choice met with opposition from the strictly clerical party of the Stoudites, and this opposition intensified into an open break when Nikephoros, in other respects a very rigid moralist, showed himself compliant to the will of the emperor by reinstating the excommunicated priest Joseph. Nicephorus then restructured the army, reinforced discipline, and improved recruiting as well as wrote treatises on military tactics that have been attributed to him. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11050a.htm The first full English translation, with an introduction, of Al-Qasida al-Arminiyya al-MalÊ¿una (The Armenian Cursed Ode)â written on behalf of Nicephorus Phocas (regn. The patriarch again deposed the priest Joseph and withdrew his decrees against Theodore and his partisans. His father Theodore, one of the secretaries of Emperor Constantine V, had been scourged and banished to Nicaea for his zealous support of Iconodules, and the son inherited the religious convictions of the father. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York. After crowning MICHAEL I, he inspired massacres of "heretic" Paulicians. Nicephorus I. A short lifespan might also indicate health problems that were once prevalent in your family. Accordingly Emperor Leo's hostile measures were not repealed, although the persecution ceased. He was well educated. Accordingly Emperor Leo's hostile measures were not repealed, although the persecution ceased. Nicephorus I Logothetis (802-811) Stravracius (811) Nicephorus I was born in Seleucia Sidera of Pisidia, a hellenistic city founded by Alexander's general Seleucus I Nicator. Kadloubovsky and Palmer open their selection, Writings from the Philokalia on Prayer of the Heart (1951) with a text by Nicephorus the Solitary known as âOn Sobriety,â or, to provide its longer title, âA Most Profitable Discourse on Sobriety and the Guarding of the Heart.âIt is unlikely that the author himself named it. He used the chronicle of Trajan the Patrician. He entered into connection with the opponents of images, among whom were a number of bishops; it steadily grew more evident that he was preparing a new attack upon the veneration of images. The two treatises discuss passages from Macarius Magnes, Eusebius of Caesarea, and from a writing wrongly ascribed to Epiphanius of Cyprus. 963-969 )âand sent to Abbasid caliph al-MuteeÊ¿ (regn. His merit is the thoroughness with which he traced the literary and traditional proofs, and his detailed refutations are serviceable for the knowledge they afford of important texts adduced by his opponents and in part drawn from the older church literature. He then withdrew to one of the cloisters that he had founded on the eastern shore of the Bosporus, until he was appointed director of the largest home for the destitute in Constantinople c. 802.
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