Stem modifications Stems of certain plants are modified to perform special functions. Take advantage of this lesson entitled Plant Shoot System: Structure & Function in order to learn more about the plant shoot system. A shoot or a shoot system always grow upwards to the ground and performs multiple functions like photosynthesis, storage, reproduction, transport, hormone production etc. These are the flattened structures that hit the node of the main stem and the region in the middle of two nodes, refers as internode. This animated video in English explains what shoot system is and its functions. Other articles where Shoot system is discussed: plant development: The shoot system and its derivatives: The gametophytes of mosses and liverworts and the sporophytes of many higher plants have a shoot, or early stem, with a single cell at its tip, or apex, from which all the tissues of the stem arise.… It constitutes the reproductive part of the shoot system of the plants that belong to the members of Angiosperms that are meant to reproduce sexually. It is the organ system that gives rise to stems, leaves, and flowers. The aboveground, conspicuous part of flowering plants constitutes the shoot system, which is composed of erect stems on which are attached leaves, flowers, and buds.Leaves are attached to the stem at regions called nodes.The section of stem between nodes is an internode, and the upper angle between the stem and the leaf at the node is called the leaf axil. Your email address will not be published. Place the white flower in a glass containing some red food colouring agent such that the cut end of the stem is immersed in the coloured water. A shoot or a shoot system always grow upwards to the ground and performs multiple functions like photosynthesis, storage, reproduction, transport, … Therefore, the shoot system is functionally responsible for food production (photosynthesis) and reproduction. Hormone production: A shoot tip produces auxin (a growth regulatory hormone) that stimulates the vertical growth or height of the plant and restricts the growth of axillary bud. This ensures that they get enough light for photosynthesis. For storage of water Stems of plants like cactus and jade swell up to store water in them. Some plants like bracken produce toxic materials that also keeps away the grazing animals. The morphology and physiology of the shoot system are more complex than the root system of the plant. The plant leaves are lateral outgrowth of the stem which develop from the meristematic tissues of buds. You will cover the following : Define shoot system Transpiration: Both leaves and stems can undergo transpiration via stomata and lenticels, that allow gaseous exchange between a plant and the surrounding. A nchorage, Absorption, Storage, Transport, Production of certain hormones The modifications generally involve structural and shape changes to the stem and the reduction of the leaves to small scales. The space between two nodes is called an internode. When a pericarp is thick, it differentiates into three distinct layers, namely outer epicarp, middle mesocarp, inner endocarp. A shoot develops after the embryogenesis, where a zygote inside an ovule goes through successive mitotic division to form a mature embryo. Functions of a Stem. The outermost layer of cells is the protoderm which forms a single sheet of meristematic cells that give rise to the epidermis. Photosynthesis: Leaves of the shoot system composed of chlorenchyma tissue, contains the high amount of chlorophyll pigment that absorbs light energy to produce sugar, to maintain the power and metabolism of the plant. To manufacture food Stems of some plants become leaf-like and flattened like that of a cactus and perform photosynthesis. A cytokinin is also a growth-regulating hormone that can conquer the inhibitory effect of auxin, by stimulating side branching or the growth of axillary bud. A leaf mainly comprises of three elements, namely: It commonly refers as a lateral bud or lateral meristem that is found attached to the leaf axil. Observation: The stem and the flower become reddish. Leave it for about a day. Figure 5.1. A shoot or seedling originates from the plumule of the seed’s embryo and shares the following morphological features: It functions as a skeleton by constituting a major part of the shoot system and firmly supports the other components like leaves, buds, flowers and fruits. These help the climber plants like, which have weak stems, attach themselves to others for support. Difference Between Plant and Animal Cytokinesis, Difference Between Apoptosis and Necrosis. Therefore, both the hormones can manipulate the growth pattern of the plant and can use widely in the field of agricultural science. Stem The stem is a very important part of the plant. It includes stem, leaf, flower, fruit, etc. Timber Shoot System -Stem- Prepared by: Group III BS Bio 1-C 2. 2. Shoot system modifications. It also describes different parts of stem. It consists of stem, branches, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. It conducts water and mineral salts from the roots to the leaves. Vegetative shoots are … The ground tissue of apical meristem further divides and differentiates to form vascular tissues for the conduction of food materials. The below two layers will give rise to the root system of the plant. The root system is everything below the ground involved in anchoring it to the ground, water uptake, etc. The shoot system includes organs such as leaves, buds, stems, flowers, and fruits and usually it develops above ground. Shoot Apical Meristem: the apical meristem includes the a group of dividing cells that give rise to three primary meristematic tissues, protoderm, ground meristem, and procambium. The shoot system is the part above the soil - where photosynthesis can occur. A shoot itself refers to the main stem of the plant, but a shoot system can define as the complex network of various structures like branches, leaves, buds, flowers and fruits attached to the main stem.
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